Pneumomediastinum (Mediastinal emphysema) causes, diagnosis, treatment

What is Pneumomediastinum (Mediastinal emphysema)?
It is Air introduced within the mediastinum

Causes of Pneumomediastinum

- Rupture or perforation of trachea or oesophagus.
- Alveolar rupture with dissection of air into the mediastinum.
Pneumomediastinum (Mediastinal emphysema)

Diagnosis and treatment :

1- Chest pain without radiation.
2- Subcutaneous emphysema in the suprasternal notch may present.
3- Auscultation, Hamman's sign which is crunching or clicking noise synchronous with the heart beats, it is best heard in the left lateral decubitus.
4- It is confirmed by chest x ray.
5- In mild cases O2 therapy ---> absorbition of air, severe cases need needle aspiration .

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