Urine Analysis Physical examination, interpretation and significance

In this article, we are going to discuss the Physical Examination of urine analysis with interpretation of every single piece of info in a urine analysis report . We will discuss the Color, Aspect, Odour, PH and specific gravity with causes of change of each of them, interpretation and significance .

In this article, we are going to discuss the Physical Examination of urine analysis with interpretation of every single piece of info in a urine analysis report .
We will discuss the Color, Aspect, Odour, PH and specific gravity with causes of change of each of them, interpretation and significance .

A- Color
• Normally it is amber yellow due to urochrome pigment which is a break down product of Hb related to bile pigments found in the urine.
Abnormal urine colors :
1. Colorless = polyurea
- D.M.        - D.I
- Compulsive H2O intake.

2. Reddish
- Haematuria.                   - Haemoglobinuria.
- Myoglobinuria. .            - Beetroot, Rhubarb.
- Drugs e.g. Rifampicin (orange-red).


3. Brownish
- Bilirubin.
-Nitrofurantoin.
- Flagyl.

4. Bluish      :    Amitriptyline (Tryptizole).
5. Greenish :   Pseudomonas
6. Blackish  :   Alkaptonuria .

.B- Aspect
• Cloudy or turbid urine provides a warning of possible abnormality as presence of pyuria, hematuria, excessive epithelial cells, excessive amorphous urate or mucus.

C- Odour
• Fruity or sweet odour may be present in cases of ketonuria.

D- PH  
(Normally acidic, pH= 5-7)

Causes of Alkaline urine 

- Renal tubular acidosis (kidney  tubules unable to excrete H+).
- Na HC03 or Na citrate intake. :,,
- High vegetable diet. i,
- Urinary tract infection with urea splitting organism e.g proteus .

Causes of Acidic urine 

- Normal urine .
- Ascorbic acid ( vit. C ) .
** Urine pH is unnecessary except in the diagnosis and treatment of renal tubular acidosis. It is also helpful in the treatment of renal stones.

E- Specific gravity
• Measurement of urine osmolality is more accurate.
• 1003 - 1025 (or more)
• After H2O deprivation for 12 hours it reaches 1025 or more.
• After plenty fluid intake it reaches 1003 or less.

Causes of Decreased specific gravity of urine 

 - Diabetes insipidus
 - Tubulointerstitial disease : Increased proteins ,,
- Compulsive H2O intake

Causes of Increased specific gravity of urine

- D.M
- Increased proteins .
- Volume depletion .
**NB: Urine specific gravity is a measure of the weight of dissolved particles in urine but osmolality reflects the number of such particles.

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Med2Date: Urine Analysis Physical examination, interpretation and significance
Urine Analysis Physical examination, interpretation and significance
In this article, we are going to discuss the Physical Examination of urine analysis with interpretation of every single piece of info in a urine analysis report . We will discuss the Color, Aspect, Odour, PH and specific gravity with causes of change of each of them, interpretation and significance .
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