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Vocal cord paralysis: causes, symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment
E.N.T

Vocal cord paralysis: causes, symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment

Etiology of vocal cord paralysis Central causes (10%): Cerebral trauma: Hemorrhage, laceration, thrombosis, embolism. Cerebral infections: meningitis, encephalitis or brain abscess. Brain tumo…

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Cancer larynx: causes, symptoms, stages, diagnosis, treatment
E.N.T

Cancer larynx: causes, symptoms, stages, diagnosis, treatment

Definition : Malignant tumor of the larynx (voice box). Incidence: Age: most common age at presentation is 40 to 70 years. Gender: male to female 10 to 1, (now it is about 7 to 1) Larynx cancer …

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Chronic Laryngitis: types, causes, symtpms, signs, treatment
E.N.T

Chronic Laryngitis: types, causes, symtpms, signs, treatment

A. Chronic non specific laryngitis: (1) Hypertrophic (a) Chronic diffuse hypertrophic laryngitis. Etiology :  Repeated acute laryngitis  predisposing factors Symptoms : Dysphonia. Cough & expec…

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Acute Laryngitis types, causes, symptoms, signs, treatment
E.N.T

Acute Laryngitis types, causes, symptoms, signs, treatment

Laryngitis generically refers to inflammation of the tissues of the larynx, it is one of the most common conditions identified in the larynx and it manifests in both acute and chronic pres…

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Laryngeal trauma: causes, types, symptoms, signs, treatment
E.N.T

Laryngeal trauma: causes, types, symptoms, signs, treatment

What is laryngeal trauma? It is injury to the larynx, which contains the vocal cords, the blunt trauma (more common) type occurs more frequently in adults than children. Types of Laryngeal…

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Congenital laryngeal web: causes, symptoms, signs and treatment
E.N.T

Congenital laryngeal web: causes, symptoms, signs and treatment

Definition: Congenital web is a medical condition in which the child's trachea (windpipe) is obstructed due to formation of a layer of web-like tissue, whish results in breathing diffi…

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Laryngeal disease symptoms, examination and investigations
E.N.T

Laryngeal disease symptoms, examination and investigations

What are the symptoms of laryngeal diseases? Change of voice (dysphonia or hoarseness).  Dyspnea: difficulty in breathing. Stridor: difficult noisy respiration.  Pain: local or referred. Cough,…

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Nasal Endoscopy and FESS: maneuver, indications, aims, complications
E.N.T

Nasal Endoscopy and FESS: maneuver, indications, aims, complications

Nasal endoscopy maneuver : In the semi-sitting position. A pack (decongestant & local anesthetic) is left for 5 minutes. The endoscope is introduced via the nostril to examine the nose, …

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Surgical operations of the Nose and Sinuses: indication, contraindication, complications
E.N.T

Surgical operations of the Nose and Sinuses: indication, contraindication, complications

Requirements of nasal sinus surgery: 1. Nasal endoscope or operating microscope (with objective lens 300mm) 2. Good illumination: head light. 3. Suction: using Zoellner sucker. 4. Haemostas…

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Resonance disorders: symptoms, causes, assessment, management
E.N.T

Resonance disorders: symptoms, causes, assessment, management

Classification Hyponasality (Rhinolalia clausa) Hypernasality ( Rhinolalia aperta) Mixed nasality Definitions: Hyponasality : Is a speech characteristic caused by insufficient resonance of air in…

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Proptosis: definition, causes, types, measuring, management
E.N.T

Proptosis: definition, causes, types, measuring, management

Definition : Protrusion of the globe with respect to the orbit. Proptosis and exophthalmos are often used interchangeably. Exophthalmos is often used to refer to endocrine-related causes. Wh…

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Migraine causes, types, symptoms and treatment
E.N.T

Migraine causes, types, symptoms and treatment

Definition : Migraine is a recurring type of headache which causes severe throbbing (or pulsating) pain most propably on one side of the head and it is usually preceded by aura (warning symp…

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Headache causes and treatment
E.N.T

Headache causes and treatment

Definition : It is pain perceived more than momentarily in the following areas: Cranial vault. Orbits. Nape of the neck. Pain elsewhere in the face is not considered as headache but as facial pain. Headache is considered the most common medica…

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Causes of Anosmia, Hyposmia, Cacosmia, Parosmia & Hyperosmia
E.N.T

Causes of Anosmia, Hyposmia, Cacosmia, Parosmia & Hyperosmia

Definition : Anosmia is complete loss of sense of small, while hyposmia is diminished sense of smell. Causes of Anosmia and Hyposmia Nasal: I. Obstruction : the small particles do not reach th…

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