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Bronchial adenoma def., manifestations, investigations and treatment

In this article, We are going to discuss bronchial adenoma regarding its definition, clinical picture, diagnostic investigations and methods of management .

What is Bronchial adenoma ?

 It is a slowly growing intrabronchial lesions that represent 50% of all benign pulmonary neoplasm 80-90% are carcinoids, 10-15% are adenocystic and 2-3% are mucoepidermoid.
 Bronchial adenoma considered to be a locally malignant or a locally invasive tumour.

What are the manifestations of Bronchial adenoma ?

Clinical picture

(female = male)
1- Cough and recurrent haemoptysis (the tumour is highly vascular) .
2- Bronchial obstruction with recurrent pulmonary infections, lung collapse may occur .
3- Carcinoid syndrome :
 attacks of Bronchospasm , Flushing , Diarrhea

Investingations

X-ray  : Coin shadow
Bronchial-adenoma-x-ray

Bronchoscopy :  Biopsy (bleeding should be anticipated)
HIAA  :  Hydroxy Indole Acetic Acid in urine = metabolite of serotonine

Treatment of Bronchial adenoma :

• Surgical Resection of the lobe or the segment that contain the tumour.
• Local removal of the tumour tissue from the bronchial lumen (bronchotomy with local excision), laser therapy may be needed.
• Chemotherapy, radiotherapy also can be used.

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