Lung collapse causes, manifestations, DDx, investigations and treatment

Here, we are going to discuss lung collapse regarding its aetiology, clinical picture, Differential diagnosis, diagnostic investigations and treatment .

What are the causes of lung collapse ?

1- Congenital
It is due to decreased surfactant which is a lipoprotein secreted by the alveolar epithelium causing decrease of the surface tension of fluids lining the alveoli.

Also, aspiration of amniotic fluid during labour ==> collapse .
2- Acquired

How to diagnose lung collapse ?

manifestations of lung collapse

• Manifestation of the cause
• Dyspnea, cyanosis
Inspection :  retraction, diminished movement J,.
Palpation   : - Low TVF , it becomes High if the underlying bronchus is patent.
                      - mediastinal shift to the same side
Percussion : dullness
Auscultation : decreased intensity of breath sounds - bronchial breathing may be present if the underlying bronchus is patent.

Differential diagnosis (D.D) of lung collapse

1- From other causes of syndrome of multiple -ve signs e.g effusion & fibrosis.
2- Consolidation
3- Acute dyspnea and post operative lung complications .

1- X-ray shows :
- Overcrowded ribs
- Raised copula
- Mediastinal Shift
- Collapsed lung ( Homogenous opacity, well defined border )
2- Bronchoscopy to detect the cause as F.B. or secretions and also to remove them .

Treatment of lung collapse

a. Treatment of the cause
b. Bronchoscopy to remove F.B or secretions.
c. O2 therapy
d. Breathing exercises.
e. Prophylactic antibiotics.
Lung collapse causes, manifestations, DDx, investigations and treatment
Dr.Tamer Mobarak


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