Lung collapse causes, manifestations, DDx, investigations and treatment

Here, we are going to discuss lung collapse regarding its aetiology, clinical picture, Differential diagnosis, diagnostic investigations and treatment .

What are the causes of lung collapse ?

Aetiology
1- Congenital
It is due to decreased surfactant which is a lipoprotein secreted by the alveolar epithelium causing decrease of the surface tension of fluids lining the alveoli.

Also, aspiration of amniotic fluid during labour ==> collapse .
2- Acquired
lung-collapse

How to diagnose lung collapse ?

manifestations of lung collapse

Symptoms
• Manifestation of the cause
• Dyspnea, cyanosis
Signs
Inspection :  retraction, diminished movement J,.
Palpation   : - Low TVF , it becomes High if the underlying bronchus is patent.
                      - mediastinal shift to the same side
Percussion : dullness
Auscultation : decreased intensity of breath sounds - bronchial breathing may be present if the underlying bronchus is patent.

Differential diagnosis (D.D) of lung collapse

1- From other causes of syndrome of multiple -ve signs e.g effusion & fibrosis.
2- Consolidation
3- Acute dyspnea and post operative lung complications .

Investigations
1- X-ray shows :
- Overcrowded ribs
- Raised copula
- Mediastinal Shift
- Collapsed lung ( Homogenous opacity, well defined border )
2- Bronchoscopy to detect the cause as F.B. or secretions and also to remove them .

Treatment of lung collapse

a. Treatment of the cause
b. Bronchoscopy to remove F.B or secretions.
c. O2 therapy
d. Breathing exercises.
e. Prophylactic antibiotics.

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