Hepatitis viruses : Types, Route of infection,Risk , Incubation & Prophylaxis

This Topic is to discuss the types of viruses that cause inflammation of the Liver " Hepatitis " which are HAV , HBV , HCV , HDV and HEV .
We will illustrate each virus type separately concerning its route  of infection,people at Risk , Incubation period , methods of Prevention & Prophylaxis .


Hepatitis A Virus (HAV):
      - Infections: fecal-oral.                 
- People at risk are those living in Or traveling to areas with bad sanitation.
- Mainly in children young adults.
- Incubation period: 2-8 weeks .

- Acute stage: usually mild.
- No chronicity not related to hepatocellular carcinoma.
- Prophylaxis: vaccination or immunoglobulins .

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV):

Infection: parenteral, sexual from mother to baby. 
          - Cases are Sporadic                                           
People at risk are:
o       Haemophiliacs haemolytic anaemia patients.
o       Parenteral drug abusers.
o       Homosexuals prostitutes.
o       Doctors nurses.
o       Babies born to HBsAg positive mothers.
o    People living in high prevalence areas. - Occurs at any age .
Incubation period: 1-6 months.
Acute stage: usually severe.
- May cause chronic infection, especially when infection occurs in infnts
- It is a carcinogenic virus that can cause HCC, even without cirrhosist
Prophylaxis : immunoGlobulins vaccination .
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV):
Infection: post transfusion & parenteral.
 - Sporadic.
- Age: more common above 16 years.
 - Incubation period: 1-6 months.              
   Acute infection :  mild or unnoticed ii1 85% of cases.
Chronicity occurs in 85% of infected patients.
- Chronic infection causes cirrhosis in 15% of cases in 5-25 years.
- Hepatocellular carcinoma, occurs in cirrhotic patients   (5% every year).
 Prophylaxis and Prevention :
 safe blood transfusion, safe medical procedures and avoiding the use of sharp abjects as razors by more than one person. 


Hepatitis D Virus (Delta Virus, HDV):
- This is an incomplete virus that needs HBsAg for its survival, so it only
causes hepatitis in HBsAg positive patients.
- It spreads by blood transfusion parenterally.
Incubation period: 1-6 months.
There are 2 forms of infection:
1. Co-infection: where the host is infected with HDV & HBV together. This gives the picture of severe acute hepatitis.
2. Super- infection: where there is super-infection of a chronic B patient with HDV. This causes exacerbation of hepatitis.
-It may lead to chronicity.
-Prophylaxis: Vaccination against HBV .
Hepatitis E Virus (HEV):
- Infection: fecal - oral.
- Sporadic or epidemic.
People at risk are those living in or traveling to areas with bad sanitation.
- Usually in children young adults .
- Incubation period: 2-8 weeks.
Acute stage: Usually mild, except in pregnant women .
- No chronicity not related to hepatocellular carcinoma .
- Prophylaxis : Improving Hygiene and Immunoglobulins .
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