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Hepatitis viruses : Types, Route of infection,Risk , Incubation & Prophylaxis

This Topic is to discuss the types of viruses that cause inflammation of the Liver " Hepatitis " which are HAV , HBV , HCV , HDV and HEV .
We will illustrate each virus type separately concerning its route  of infection,people at Risk , Incubation period , methods of Prevention & Prophylaxis .


Hepatitis A Virus (HAV):
      - Infections: fecal-oral.                 
- People at risk are those living in Or traveling to areas with bad sanitation.
- Mainly in children young adults.
- Incubation period: 2-8 weeks .

- Acute stage: usually mild.
- No chronicity not related to hepatocellular carcinoma.
- Prophylaxis: vaccination or immunoglobulins .

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV):

Infection: parenteral, sexual from mother to baby. 
          - Cases are Sporadic                                           
People at risk are:
o       Haemophiliacs haemolytic anaemia patients.
o       Parenteral drug abusers.
o       Homosexuals prostitutes.
o       Doctors nurses.
o       Babies born to HBsAg positive mothers.
o    People living in high prevalence areas. - Occurs at any age .
Incubation period: 1-6 months.
Acute stage: usually severe.
- May cause chronic infection, especially when infection occurs in infnts
- It is a carcinogenic virus that can cause HCC, even without cirrhosist
Prophylaxis : immunoGlobulins vaccination .
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV):
Infection: post transfusion & parenteral.
 - Sporadic.
- Age: more common above 16 years.
 - Incubation period: 1-6 months.              
   Acute infection :  mild or unnoticed ii1 85% of cases.
Chronicity occurs in 85% of infected patients.
- Chronic infection causes cirrhosis in 15% of cases in 5-25 years.
- Hepatocellular carcinoma, occurs in cirrhotic patients   (5% every year).
 Prophylaxis and Prevention :
 safe blood transfusion, safe medical procedures and avoiding the use of sharp abjects as razors by more than one person. 


Hepatitis D Virus (Delta Virus, HDV):
- This is an incomplete virus that needs HBsAg for its survival, so it only
causes hepatitis in HBsAg positive patients.
- It spreads by blood transfusion parenterally.
Incubation period: 1-6 months.
There are 2 forms of infection:
1. Co-infection: where the host is infected with HDV & HBV together. This gives the picture of severe acute hepatitis.
2. Super- infection: where there is super-infection of a chronic B patient with HDV. This causes exacerbation of hepatitis.
-It may lead to chronicity.
-Prophylaxis: Vaccination against HBV .
Hepatitis E Virus (HEV):
- Infection: fecal - oral.
- Sporadic or epidemic.
People at risk are those living in or traveling to areas with bad sanitation.
- Usually in children young adults .
- Incubation period: 2-8 weeks.
Acute stage: Usually mild, except in pregnant women .
- No chronicity not related to hepatocellular carcinoma .
- Prophylaxis : Improving Hygiene and Immunoglobulins .

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  2. Hello my name Nelly am from UK I give thank to a great doctor who help me out of my illness I was very sick I thank god who use this man to help, it started when i travel to Florida for visit there I meet a lady not knowing to me that she HIV positive I really like the lady because she was beautiful I always see her every moment I close my eye I went to tell her how I feel for her but I don’t know if she know that she HIV I went to bed with her I contacted the virus too when I get home for month my doctor come to check on me and he discover that I have HIV he was shock and tell me I was so confused and so surprised to hear that I was taking HIV drug to cure it for good a 2year I decided to look for cure them I meet this post on internet I contacted him for help… well DR.ABEGBE proving to be a great man and he heal me.. According to him he said is the power of his gods well I thank god am back again if you need cure for your HIV….you can still contact him or his email or number I promise he is 100% he cure any virus like T-VIRUS HIV AID ROTA-VIRUS, SMALLPOX, HEPATITIS B if you have this virus or friend non relative contact him now DR.ABEGBESPELLHOME@GMAIL.COM or call +2348142729958


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