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Kidney stones Causes , Predisposing factors and Types

This article is to answer the question :
What are the causes and risk factors of Kidney stones or Urinary stones ?
Cause
·         It is due to disturbed crystalloid/colloid ratio 
·        Infection (secondary stone):
Predisposing factors
·        Concenterated urine
·        Increase Ca excretion in urine:
-          Drinking hard water
-          Hyperparathyroidism.
-          Prolonged immobilization.
·        Crytaluria due to excess intake of oxalate.

·        Hyperuricemia
·        Decrease urinary excretoin of citrate
·        Inborn metabolic error of cystine metabolism.


Types of Stones 
Phosphate stone is formed of ammonium, magnesium, calcium salts i.e. triple phosphate .
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Dr.Tamer Mobarak

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