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Complications of pulmonary tuberculosis

Complications of T.B
1) Pneumothorax due to rupture of cavity in the pleural space.
2) Empyema or pyopneumothorax due to rupture of tuberculous lesion in the pleural space.
3) Tuberculous laryngitis.
4) Respiratory failure with extensive pulmonary destruction and fibrosis.
5) Fungal colonization of the cavities with asperigillus fumigatus (Aspergilloma)
6) Pulmonary fibrosis.
7) Constrictive pericarditis.
8) Tuberculous entritis follows swallowing heavily infected sputum.

9) Disseminated tuberculosis (tubercle bacilli gain access to the blood stream).
a) Miliary tuberculosis with minute foci of infection in many organs particularly liver, bone marrow, spleen and kidneys.
b) Isolated organ tuberculosis when disseminated organisms become established in only one or two organs most often adrenals, kidneys, bone or female genital tract (salphingitis, endometritis).

The extrapulmonary sites or the lesions of disseminated T.B are :

• Adrenal : Addison disease
• Brain :  Meningitis with cranial nerve palsies.
• Peritoneum -: T.B. peritonitis ==> ascities.
• Lymphadnopathy commonly at cervical and supraclavicular.
• Gatrointestinal 1,B., The terminal ileum and caecum are common sites. This leads to abdominal pain, diarrhea and palpable abdominal mass.
• Bone : Osteomylitis and pott's disease.
• Bone marrow : Anemia and thrombocytopenia.
• Genitourinary T.B:
- T.B. kidney ==> sterile pyuria.
- T.B Salpingitis or endometritis ===> infertility.
- T.B.epididymitis.
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Tamer Mobarak

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