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Diseases of the Salivary glands,definition, causes and management

Here is a list of the diseases that affect the salivary glands, with definition, causes and management of each .

Ptyalism

- It is  Excessive salivation .
- Causes :
- Psychogenic.
- Prior to vomiting.
- Secondary to oral pathology e.g. stomatitis.

Xerostomia

- It is dryness of the mouth .
Causes :
- Dehydration.
- Psychogenic.
- Sjogren's syndrome .
- Radiotherapy.
- Drugs e.g. anticholinergics and antihistaminics.

Sialadenitis

- It is inflammation of the salivary glands .
- Acute sialadenitis may be due to mumps (parotitis) or bacteria.

Salivary Calculi

- These occur occasionally in the submandibular gland or its ducts.
Clinical picture :
Painful swelling of the submandibular gland after eating.
Stones can sometimes be felt in the floor of the mouth.
Investigations :
Sialography and Plain X-ray will show the stone.

Treatment : Surgical removal.

Tumors of of  Salivary glands

- The majority occur in the parotid gland.
- The pleomorphic adenoma is the commonest which may turn malignant.
- Malignant tumors usually result in lower motor neurone lesion of facial nerve.

Sarcoidosis can involve salivary gland. e.g. in cases of Heerfordt's and Mikulicz syndromes .

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