What are the symptoms of laryngeal diseases?
- Change of voice (dysphonia or hoarseness).
- Dyspnea: difficulty in breathing.
- Stridor: difficult noisy respiration.
- Pain: local or referred.
- Cough, expectoration, and hemoptysis.
Examination of the larynx:
A. External Examination
- Inspection: position & movement, contour, swellings, and scars.
- Palpation: tenderness, crepitus, crepitation, swellings, laryngeal click
Side to side movement of larynx over the vertebral column, normally a click is felt, if lost (+ve Moure’s sign) … mass between larynx & vertebral column e.g. post cricoid carcinoma.
B- Indirect laryngoscopy(IL):
C. Flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy:
- When I.L is difficult, it is introduced via the nose.
- Photographic documentation.
D. Direct laryngoscopy(DL) under GA:
- By rigid endoscope
- Operating microscope can be used
NB: -Any lesion affects laryngeal patency: stridor
- Any lesion affects vocal fold: dysphonia
- Direct laryngoscopy ± biopsy.
- Radiology (X ray, CT and, MRI).
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